The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of a human. The body naturally regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. The lack of insulin production causes unregulated glucose levels in the body, resulting in higher blood sugar levels.
If these high blood sugar levels persist over time, it could lead to fatal complications for the person.
Blood sugar levels usually are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood sugar level by stimulating the uptake of glucose into cells and by promoting its storage in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles.
The Correlation between Blood sugar levels and Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes is a problem with the body that causes blood sugar levels also called blood glucose to rise higher than normal. When an individual eats, the body will break the food down into sugar and sends it into the blood.
Insulin then helps to move the sugar from the blood into the cells. When sugar enters the cells, it is either used as fuel for energy right away or stored for later use. In an individual with diabetes, there is a problem with insulin. But, not everyone with diabetes has the same problem.
There are two main types of diabetes mellitus,
- Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency (or other metabolic derangements) leading to hyperglycemia and glycosuria. In contrast
- Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance in muscle and fat tissues with only modest insulin deficiency and relatively mild blood sugar elevations.
Problems arising out of Diabetes
Higher or lower blood sugar levels normal range can lead to several health problems, including:
- Increased risk of heart disease
- Increased risk of stroke
- Increased risk of kidney disease
- Increased risk of nerve damage
- Increased risk of eye damage
Poor blood sugar control is also associated with an increased risk of infection and accelerated aging.
- In type 1 diabetes, the process is disrupted, leading to high blood sugar levels.
- In type 2 diabetes, the process is also disrupted, but to a lesser extent, and the blood sugar level may only be moderately elevated.
What is the normal blood sugar level?
The blood sugar level normal range for every individual, whether they have Diabetes or not, is 90-110 mg/dL. This range is relatively flexible; sometimes, a reading of 130 or 140 mg/dL can still be considered normal.
An individual who has Diabetes has high concentrations of glucose in the blood. Because there is no or less than normal insulin production, the overall glucose levels in the body are uncontrolled, resulting in a higher level of blood sugar throughout the range.
These excessive amounts, if they stay for an extended period of time, can result in several serious diseases and problems in the individual.
The normal blood sugar level is as follows:
Fasting blood sugar (FBS)
This is measured after an overnight fast (at least 8 hours). A normal FBS is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). If the blood glucose levels are more than 130 mg/dL after you have fasted for 8 hours or longer, you may be suffering from fasting hyperglycemia.
Prediabetes is a fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL or HbA1C of 5.7%-6.4%. Diabetes is a fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL and above, or HbA1C of 6.5% or higher.
Postprandial blood sugar (PBS)
A normal PBS is less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L). The Postprandial blood sugar Test can help detect
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes, and
- Other types of diabetes
Postprandial blood sugar is a blood glucose test that helps determine blood sugar levels two hours after a meal. If the postprandial blood sugars are above 140-200 mg/dL, it indicates that the person may have diabetes mellitus. The test is also recommended for people with diabetes to monitor their sugar control.
Regular monitoring and well-controlled postprandial blood sugar level can help minimize the risk of cardiovascular and other health complications due to diabetes. The Postprandial blood sugar test can be taken by people of all age groups or as recommended by your doctor.
Random blood sugar (RBS)
A random blood sugar test is the testing of the blood sugar level at any time or random time of the day. The test is normally performed outside the regular testing schedule. A random blood sugar test is performed to confirm diabetes mellitus, during the treatment and after the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
A level of 200 mg/dl or higher is an indication of diabetes mellitus. The main goal behind random blood sugar tests is to check random blood sugar levels. Having a random blood sugar range of 200mg/dl or more is a clear indication of the presence of diabetes mellitus.
With the diagnosis of diabetes, random blood sugar test helps in the timely treatment of the disease through monitoring during and after the treatment. A doctor can prescribe random blood sugar test if the person complains of the following symptoms;
- Unintended Weight loss
- Dehydration and dry mouth
- Slow healing of a wound
- Blurry vision
- Frequent urination
Other tests associated with Random Blood Sugar Test
High blood sugar is commonly associated with diabetes but, there can be other reasons apart from diabetes for the high blood sugar range like;
- Overactive thyroid gland
- Inflammation of the pancreas
- Pancreatic cancer
- Several rare tumors
As such, in some cases, a random blood sugar test is not sufficient enough to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes and a person can be advised further testing like
This can be measured at any time. Normal random blood sugar is less than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). The random blood sugar test procedure is pretty simple and does not even require fasting, unlike the Fast Blood Glucose Test.
Random blood sugar test involves drawing blood out from the veins by means of an injection. Apart from a tiny prick, not much discomfort is felt during the random blood sugar test.
If an individual has Diabetes, it is essential to keep the sugar level in your blood under control. This can be done through diet, exercise, and medication. If you are not able to control your blood sugar levels, you may experience serious health complications.
Symptoms of Low Blood Glucose Levels
The low blood sugar level (also called hypoglycemia) has many causes, including
- Missing a meal
- Taking too much insulin
- Taking other diabetes medicines
- Exercising more than usual
- Drinking too much alcohol
Low blood sugar level in blood is one of the most hazardous situations a person with Diabetes can face. Recognizing symptoms before it’s too late would be really beneficial. Signs may vary, but watch for the following:
- A feeling of unsteadiness or light-headedness.
- Blurred vision
- Shaking/trembling of hands and feet
- Accelerated heart rate and difficulty breathing
- Confusion, etc
Symptoms High Blood Sugar Levels
Many things can cause high blood sugar levels in an individual (hyperglycemia), these include
- Being sick
- Being stressed
- Eating more than planned
- Not getting enough insulin
This condition can cause diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a life-threatening illness that affects approximately 2% of all people with Diabetes. Other long-term diseases include
- Heart disease
- Liver disease
- Kidney failure
Some symptoms to check for are:
- Tiredness and Fatigue
- Extreme thirst and hunger
- Frequent urination
- Parched throat
Here are some tips to manage blood sugar levels:
- Adopting a healthy diet with an array of fruits and vegetables
- Achieving and/or maintaining a respectable weight
- Getting consistent physical activity is all helpful tips
Other things to be doing include:
- To learn what causes the blood sugar levels to fluctuate and continue to keep track of them.
- Eating at set intervals throughout the day will help to maintain the body’s metabolism
- Avoiding skipping meals
In maintaining a healthy diet, it is important to choose foods
- Keep track of the blood sugar levels to see what makes them go up or down.
- Eating at regular times
- Don’t skip meals.
- Choose foods lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Track the food, drink, and physical activity.
- Drink water instead of juice or soda.
If you’re hungry, try sipping water instead of juice or soda. You should drink as little alcohol as possible. Consuming smaller portions can help you better control your hunger, feel fuller for longer, and reduce the number of calories you consume each day.
You can try using the plate method. Fill half your plate with non-starchy vegetables like broccoli or carrots, a quarter with lean protein such as grilled chicken or fish, and a quarter with grain or starchy food like quinoa or brown rice.
You have to be extra careful of many things if you are having diabetes by keeping an eye on blood sugar levels in your blood. High blood sugar levels can cause a lot of problems, it’s important to keep an eye on your numbers and make sure they stay within a healthy range.
But in general, you’ll want to aim for a blood sugar fasting normal range of less than 100mg/dl and Postprandial blood sugar (PBS) of less than 140 mg/dL. This can be attained by following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and keeping track of your blood sugar levels, and thereby you can help prevent serious health complications.
It is very important to keep blood sugar levels within a targeted range as much as possible to help prevent or delay long-term, serious health problems, such as
- Heart disease
- Vision loss
- Kidney disease
Staying in a targeted range can also help improve energy and mood. You need to know what your individual symptoms are so you can catch low blood sugar early and treat it. If you think you may have low blood sugar, check it even if you don’t have symptoms.
If you’ve had low blood sugar without feeling or noticing symptoms, you may need to check your blood sugar more often to see if it’s low and treat it. Driving with low blood sugar can be dangerous, so be sure to check your blood sugar before you get behind the wheel. Low blood sugar can be dangerous and should be treated as soon as possible.
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