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Chronic Kidney Disease Stages and Treatments

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), also known as renal colic, is a condition where the kidney’s filtering system does not function as it should. It is a very common condition and often associated with getting old. It may affect anyone, though it is most common in those who are African American or of South Asian origin.

If you have been diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease you will know that the kidneys are very important and they need to be kept healthy. You should take care not to overuse your kidneys and try to keep them as healthy as possible. People who have had a kidney infection are twice as likely to develop kidney failure

You should avoid taking any medicines or drugs which may affect your kidneys. Certain types of blood pressure medication may also affect your kidneys, so you should check with your doctor if you are taking them.

Kidney problems are very common in elderly people, it is estimated that half of all senior citizens suffer from kidney problems at some time during their lives. Chronic Kidney Disease is an inflammation of the kidney that affects its filtering systems.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stages

Chronic kidney disease stages are based on how well the kidneys can filter waste and extra fluid out of the blood. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, the kidneys are still able to filter out waste from the blood. In the later stages, the kidneys must work harder to get rid of waste and may stop working altogether.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Stage 1 eGFR 90 or Greater

The eGFR of 90 or greater means your kidneys are healthy and working well, but you have other signs of kidney damage. Signs of kidney damage could be protein in your urine (pee) or physical damage to your kidneys. Here are some ways to help slow down the damage to your kidneys in Stage 1 kidney disease:

  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Do not smoke or use tobacco
  • Be active 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week
  • Stay at a healthy weight
  • Ask your doctor if there are medicines you can take to help protect your kidneys
  • Make an appointment to see a nephrologist (kidney doctor) even if you already have a general doctor

Stage 2 eGFR Between 60 and 89

The eGFR between 60 and 89 means your kidneys are healthy and working well. But if you have Stage 2 kidney disease, this means you have other signs of kidney damage even though your eGFR is normal. Signs of kidney damage could be protein in your urine (pee) or physical damage to your kidneys. Here are some ways to help slow down the damage to your kidneys in Stage 2 kidney disease:

  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Do not smoke or use tobacco
  • Be active 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week
  • Stay at a healthy weight
  • Ask your doctor if there are medicines to protect your kidneys
  • Make an appointment to see a nephrologist (kidney doctor) even if you already have a general doctor
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Stage 3 eGFR Between 30 and 59

The eGFR between 30 and 59 means that there is some damage to your kidneys and they are not working as well as they should.

The chronic kidney disease stage 3 is divided into 2 stages

  • Stage 3a means you have an eGFR between 45 and 59
  • Stage 3b means you have an eGFR between 30 and 44

Most people with Stage 3 kidney disease do not have any symptoms. But if there are symptoms, there may be:

  • Swelling in your hands and feet
  • Back pain
  • Urinating (peeing) more or less than normal

At this 3rd stage of chronic kidney disease, you are also more likely to have health complications as waste builds up in your body and your kidneys are not working well, such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • Anaemia (a low number of red blood cells)
  • Bone disease

To keep your Stage 3 kidney disease from getting worse, you can:

  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Do not smoke or use tobacco
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Be active 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week
  • Stay at a healthy weight
  • Visit a nephrologist (kidney doctor), who will make a treatment plan that is right for you and tell you how often you will need to have your kidneys checked
  • Meet with a dietitian, who will help you follow a healthy diet
  • Ask your doctor about blood pressure medicines called ACE inhibitors and ARBs if you have diabetes or high blood pressure. Sometimes, these medicines can help keep kidney disease from getting worse

Stage 4 eGFR Between 15 and 29

The eGFR between 15 and 30 means your kidneys are moderately or severely damaged and are not working as they should. Stage 4 kidney disease should be taken very seriously – it is the last stage before kidney failure.

At Stage 4 of chronic kidney disease, many people have symptoms such as:

  • Swelling in your hands and feet
  • Back pain
  • Urinating (peeing) more or less than normal

At Stage 4, you will likely also have health complications as waste builds up in your body and your kidneys are not working well, such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • Anaemia (a low number of red blood cells)
  • Bone disease

To keep kidney disease from getting worse at this stage, your doctor will recommend that you:

  • Have regular appointments with a nephrologist (kidney doctor), who will make a treatment plan that is right for you and tell you how often you will need to have your kidneys checked
  • Meet with a dietitian, who will help you follow a healthy diet
  • Take special blood pressure medicines like ACE inhibitors and ARBs if your doctor says you should. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, sometimes these medicines can help keep kidney disease from getting worse.

At Stage 4 kidney disease, this is the time to start talking with your nephrologist about how to prepare for kidney failure. Once your kidneys have failed, you will need to start dialysis or have a kidney transplant to live.

  • Preparing for dialysis: Dialysis helps clean your blood when your kidneys have failed. There are several things to think about, such as the type of dialysis, how to plan your treatments and how they will affect your daily life. Learn more about hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
  • Preparing for a transplant: A kidney transplant is surgery to give you a healthy kidney from someone else’s body. If you can find a living kidney donor, you may not need to start dialysis at all. It is possible to have a transplant when your kidneys are getting close to failure.
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Stage 5 eGFR Less than 15

The eGFR is less than 15 means the kidneys are getting very close to failure or have completely failed. If your kidneys fail, waste builds up in your blood, which makes you very sick.

Some of the symptoms of kidney failure are:

  • Itching
  • Muscle cramps
  • Feeling sick and throwing up
  • Not feeling hungry
  • Swelling in your hands and feet
  • Back pain
  • Urinating (peeing) more or less than normal
  • Trouble breathing
  • Trouble sleeping

Once your kidneys have failed, you will need to start dialysis or have a kidney transplant to live.

  • Preparing for dialysis: Dialysis helps clean your blood when your kidneys have failed. There are several things to think about, such as the type of dialysis, how to plan your treatments and how they will affect your daily life. Learn more about hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
  • Preparing for a transplant: A kidney transplant is surgery to give you a healthy kidney from someone else’s body. If you can find a living kidney donor, you may not need to start dialysis at all. It is possible to have a transplant when your kidneys are getting close to failure. Source

Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment

Chronic Kidney infection may lead to kidney failure if not treated. There are several ways in which Chronic Kidney Disease can be treated. If you have been diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease, then you should speak with your doctor immediately to discuss the various treatment options.

Your doctor will be able to advise you about your treatment options and how to best manage your condition. The first kidney treatment option for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is surgery. This is usually used in cases where the kidney is infected and cannot be treated by other means.

It is usually not recommended for people who have a family history of kidney problems or have other types of kidney problems. Patients who have Chronic Kidney Disease should try to keep their kidneys free of infections.

Infections can spread between the kidney and filtering systems and cause further damage. They are common in kidney transplant patients and people who live with HIV/AIDS. So it is extremely important for people with Kidney Disease to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Failure to treat Chronic Kidney Disease can lead to dehydration and shock. This can cause permanent kidney damage. Symptoms of dehydration include

  • Pale urine
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Increased thirst

Dehydration is particularly dangerous for those suffering from chronic kidney failure because the body will not be getting the fluids it needs.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stages

Patients with chronic kidney disease are more likely to have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is increased because there is not enough fluid in the blood. Blood pressure is increased when the kidneys are not filtering the blood properly.

This causes the blood to stay in the body for a longer period of time, which can cause hypertension. Patients with kidney failure should not take medication or treatments unless their doctor recommends it.

Some medications that may help reduce the symptoms of Kidney Disease include diuretics such as

  • Acetazolamide
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • As well as azole antifungals which are used for the treatment of bone tumours and other conditions.
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People with low doses of cortisone should not take them because they may cause further damage to the kidneys. Cortisone can cause severe headaches and stomach upset. People with kidney failure are also not advised to take high-dose vitamin C supplements.

The dosage should be reduced slowly to help prevent the damage. Also, they should not take aspirin or any vitamin A derivatives because they may increase your risk of kidney failure. In general, doctors recommend that people with kidney infections are on a low-salt diet.

Many people who have had a kidney infection are on a low-salt diet. So you should talk with your doctor before starting a low-salt diet. A low-salt diet is an alternate diet in which the daily amount of sodium is kept at less than two grams.

The purpose of this kind of diet is to help in preventing various medical problems and complications. Sodium is usually found in foods like

  • Canned or packaged food
  • Soda
  • Salt
  • Fast food such as burgers, fries, hamburgers, hot dogs, and dogs.

It is found to be dangerous because it can damage cells and joints by giving way to high blood pressure and heart disease. High blood pressure and heart disease can be dangerous if the body has to cope with too much sodium.

Hence, people who are planning on adopting a low-salt diet must consult their doctors and take precautions so that they can have a safe and healthy lifestyle. There are other risks related to high sodium foods, that is why the low-salt diet is more appropriate for people who have high blood pressure and heart disease.

High sodium foods can cause a condition known as hyperglycemia, which is commonly known as diabetes. People who have high blood pressure and heart disease have to avoid high-sodium foods to lower their blood pressure and lower their risk of getting diabetes.

Chronic Kidney Disease Diet Food List

  • Pizza
  • Chinese food
  • Seafood
  • Canned foods
  • Dairy products
  • Dried foods
  • Fast food
  • Canned foods
  • Baked foods
  • Salty snacks

In some cases, high sodium food can also cause hypertension in some patients. Some people have had reported that they have suffered from serious medical conditions after consuming too much of the above-mentioned foods.

A low-salt diet should be practised by all people as well as the elderly. When the intake of these types of food is lessened, people may suffer from several diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and kidney stones.

The elderly have a greater tendency to develop these problems especially if they are already at an advanced age. To reduce the risk of having kidney stones, one must take in plenty of fluids, which include water and fresh vegetables.

This will provide the body with enough electrolytes to maintain a proper level of potassium. Potassium helps maintain a normal heartbeat and helps prevent the development of a condition known as congestive heart failure.

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